Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Section A: The first argument that Socrates gives about death in Ã¢â¬Å"The ApologyÃ¢â¬ nis that no one should fear death because we should only fear things that we know to be bad, and we do not know for a fact that death is a bad thing. In the second argument, he provides two different possibilities of what happens after death. The first one says that death is like dreamless sleep, which is good. The second says that death is a journey to an interesting place, which is good as well. He therefore comes to the conclusion that death must be good. I do not think either one of these arguments succeeds. The first argument at first seems rational, but upon further analysis of it I realized that it is untrue because I think the main reason why people fearÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Epicurus and Lucretius argued that these asymmetrical attitudes are irrational. They thought that if you believed it is not painful to miss out on life before you are born, they it should not be painful after you die, because in both situations your mind is a blank and you do not feel anything at all. I think the asymmetrical attitudes can be explained with the fact that when babies are born, they do not know anything about life and therefore do not feel any negative emotions for not having been born earlier. In contrast, when people die they have already seen years of life so they are very attached to it and suffer at the thought of not being able to keep living it. Ã¢â¬Å"Do not go gentle into that good nightÃ¢â¬ by Dylan Thomas and Ã¢â¬Å"The Garden of ProserpineÃ¢â¬ by Algernon Charles Swinburne are two poems we discussed in class that present dissimilar views about death. In the first one, the author conveys the message that people facing death should fight it and struggle to survive as long as possible, even if it means suffering. He dedicated it to his dying father, encouraging him not to be tempted by the peacefulness of death. It implores him (and the reader as well) to not just go gentle into that good night, but to rage against it. Conversely, the second poem says: Ã¢â¬Å"We thank with brief thanksgiving/ Whatever gods may be/Show MoreRelatedSocrates : The Fear Of Death1717 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPhil 10200 Cai 06/16/2017 Socrates on The Fear of Death In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"ApologyÃ¢â¬ , Plato captures the arguments that Socrates makes about death. Socrates attitude towards the fear of death was a thought or imagination based on the limitation of our knowledge for we do not know about the truth of something without experiencing, and not on its facts. Socrates believes people should not fear death, and he calls the fear of death to be false wisdom. This statement Socrates proves it based on the followingRead MoreDeath Is Not Bad For Anyone986 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDeath is not Bad for Anyone Epicurus writes, the argument that death is nothing to us, because when we exist, death is not yet present, and when death comes, we no longer exist. There are three reasonable previews to support his view, including: something is bad for someone as long as it must be bad for that person at specific time; Death cannot be bad for someone when they are dead because the person does not exist at that time; Death cannot be bad for someone before death actually come. AmongRead MoreOutline Of Death Penalty1013 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDeath Penalty Introduction In America many people believed that death penalty was the constitutional ban against cruel and unusual punishment and the guarantees of due process of law and of equal protection under the law. Now, we believe that the state should not give itself the right to kill human beings Ã¢â¬â especially when it kills with happiness and with ceremony, in the name of the law or in the name of its people, and now we could vote if there could be death penalty. Capital punishment isRead MoreThe Death Of An Ancient Greek Philosopher1301 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesindividuals fear the thought of death given that they feel the uneasiness of not knowing what happens when one is dead. For example, some fear things like a continuation of their sense perception post-death allowing the possibility of being punished for all the bad actions in their lifetime. Epicurus, an ancient Greek philosopher of the Hellenistic period of 323-31 BCE, believed that death is the end of our existence and thus argued that the act of fearing death is irrational (Letter to MenoeceusRead MoreDeath By The Broom Of Death872 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"But death also goes through the world dressed as a broom, lapping the floor, looking for dead bodies, death is inside the broom, the broom is the tongue of death looking for corpses, it is the needle of death looking for thread.Ã¢â¬ Birth marks the beginning of life and is often celebrated while death gets such a bad reputation because of it signifies the end of life as an inevitable fate to humans. We tiptoe around death with hopes that it goes away and watch as it snuffs out life from those we onceRead MoreWhy Death On An Expiry Date Poses A Harm1523 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHarm Thesis 999198336 Ian Summers The question of whether death on an expiry date poses a harm to the one who dies has important ontological relevance concerning how we relate to death and including how death causes harm to us. I will argue that what matters for us with respect to life is mental continuity, and that an expiration date is only harmful in that it fails to cohere with our irrational tendency to project our current mortality beyond our own existence. In this paper I will first examineRead MoreThe Omen: Forces of Nature Play a Very Important Role in Julius Caesar1127 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCaesar. There is much attention paid to omens and nightmares and how they foreshadow Caesars death. The events that lead to the death of Julius Caesar are predicted by omens from multiple characters such as Calpurnia, Caesars wife, the Soothsayer, and a teacher, Artemidorus. The omens in the play were ignored by a majority of the main characters. Even though ignored, these omens appear even after Caesars death to show the guilt-ridden nature of the conspirators. Hence, the play Julius Caesar shows thatRead MoreDeath Penalty: The Pros and Cons of Capital Punishment Essay527 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesshould have the death penalty. They believe that the death penalty keeps people from committing crimes. Most of these people today think that people will get scared of being executed by gas or needle and that they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t commit real bad crimes. A lot of other people believe that it is just plain wrong to kill someone and no one should be killed for any reason even murder and rape and so they are against the death penalty. I will talk to you about these problems with the death penalty in my paperRead MoreHow Both Romeo and Juliet Take Full Responsibility for their Deaths774 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIf he hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t have been scheduled to marry Juliet then she would never have had to fake her own death, in turn leading to RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s. The most ironic thing about the situation was that ParisÃ¢â¬â¢ love for Juliet led to her death. Paris was a noble gentlemen and it was sheerly bad circumstances that led him to be a key part in the death of the two lovers. Mr Capulet could also be considered a key part in the death of his beloved daughter. He was the one who agreed to let Paris take her hand in marriage withoutRead MoreThe Nature of Death Essay1508 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesabstract idea of death. Two Hellenistic philosophers Epicurus and Epictetus take very different approaches to prove that death is insignificant and nothing to worry about. Epicurus argues that death is the unequivocal end of our existence, and Epictetus claims it is something that we have no control over. Both examine the nature of death in an attempt to achieve ataraxia or a tranquil state of mind. However, Epicurus and Epictetus fail to address the true emotional nature of death and its impact on
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome); HIV is the etiological agent of AIDS leaving the body vulnerable to a variety of life threatening diseases (8). Transmission: AIDS is transmitted from the HIV virus through blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk to others from infected host (1). The virus can be spread through sexual contact by oral, vaginal, or anal sex; receiving a blood transfusion, injection involving needles, artificial insemination and organ transplants from an infected donor. Transmission from mother to child during pregnancy (intrauterine) from shared blood circulation while in fetus, delivery, or after pregnancy when nursing infant from breast milk of infected mother (9). The exact mechanism of motherÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Tests used include CD4 count test to determine amount of CD4 cells/mm3 in host, a viral load test to measure the amount of virus in patientÃ¢â¬â¢s blood, and drug resistance test to determine HIV strain (3). History: The firs t published article related to AIDS was in 1981 by Michael Gottlieb concerning a random increase in pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (7). Soon after another article reporting sudden outbreaks of KaposiÃ¢â¬â¢s sarcoma (KS) appeared (7). Noticed and named by the CDC, the term Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is used in 1982 to describe the new disease related to sudden outbreaks (7). The causation of AIDS in 1982 was not known until the discovery of HIV on April 23, 1984 by Pasteur and Dr. Robert Gallo (7). In 1985 scientist realized HIV/AIDS can be spread through blood and bodily fluids (8). In 1985 testing first became available focusing on protecting the blood supply involving blood transfusions (8). In 1987 the USPHS issued guidelines making HIV testing a priority regarding prevention of individuals that have high risk behaviors (8). In 1993 the CDC recommended voluntary HIV counseling and testing to outpatients in acute care hospital settings (8). In 2003 the CDC introdu ced the initiative advancing HIV prevention to have new strategies concerning the AIDS epidemic (8). In 2004 the CDC arranged a meeting with a mix of professional health officials to best expand HIV testing and education for everyone (8). Since the discovery noShow MoreRelatedThe Pandemic Known As Aids1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe pandemic known as AIDS was first found in a human blood sample around the year 1959 and was later introduced to the United States in the late 1970s to early 1980s. Ã¢â¬Å"From 1979Ã¢â¬â1981 rare types of pneumonia, cancer, and other illnesses were being reported by doctors in Los Angeles and New York among a number of male patients who had sex with other men (Ã¢â¬Å"Where did HIV come from?Ã¢â¬ ).Ã¢â¬ Due to these occurrences, doctors did their research and were able to trace the cause of this fatal disease calledRead MoreThe Prevalence Of Hiv / Aids1532 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinfected with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodef iciency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are living longer lives and changing the perception of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. There has been extensive research conducted on high risk groups for HIV/AIDS but little has been done to research and address the social aspect of aging and HIV/AIDS. It is important to have a more conclusive understanding of HIV/AIDS in the aging population due to the climbing rate of new infection among older American adultsRead MoreHiv And The Immune System948 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhat is HIV HIV , stands for human immunodeficiency virus, it is a virus that attacks the immune system, the immune system protects the body against infection and illness .If the body does not have a strong immune system, It may not be able fight off disease. The virus and the infection it causes are termed HIV. White blood cells are the part of the immune system that is important as far as fighting off infection. When a person catches HIV it infects and destroys certain white blood cells calledRead MoreHiv Is A Human Immunodeficiency Virus1721 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesribs and all other bones are showing through the skin, they are born with HIV. it then leads to AIDS, due to their parents. HIV is a Human Immunodeficiency Virus. If HIV is left untreated, it can lead to AIDS, which is an acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. In Nigeria, Africa millions of people have the disease of AIDS and HIV. There is not many treatment options or solutions for this serious issue that takes place all over the c ountry. There are a few aspects one must understand about this movementRead MoreAIDS and HIV Essay1520 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHIV, or the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, is a virus which damages and kills cells of the immune system. It attacks the T-cells, key cells of the immune system, and uses them to make copies of itself. After being infected with the virus it progressively interferes and eventually destroys the immune systems ability to fight the anti-genes. HIV may develop into the syndrome AIDS, the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV is an STD - a sexually transmitted disease - and therefore most commonly itRead MoreEssay on HIV/AIDS and Modern Medical Inventions1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesadvancement in medical inventions, still the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the most challenging virus that will drag the human lives to the deadly disease acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It spreads its wings all over. HIV cannot be cured, but it can be prevented. It has become the greatest life threatening disease and affects unbelievably high percent of human beings. Nowadays, besides other deadly diseases, HIV/AIDS becomes more complex and crucial health issue that challenges severalRead MoreSustainable Development1650 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdelighted to join you today in launching this book, an important tool in our ongoing efforts to demystify HIV/AIDS. The book being launched here signifies the authorÃ¢â¬Å¸s desire to contribute meaningfully to education and information sharing materials, especially targeted toward the youth highlighting the dangers of irresponsible behaviour which may lead to contracting diseases such as HIV/AIDS. The production of the book, The Other Presence, and its translation into local languages, are thus aimedRead MoreMary Fisher Speech Summary846 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDuring the late 1990s, the HIV virus spread to different parts of the world affecting millions of people and causing the death of many people. The spread of the virus brought fear to many people, especially those in America. Negative attitudes toward those with HIV or AIDS grew which made those with the virus feel ashamed of being exposed to the virus. Mary Fisher argues that raising awareness of HIV/AIDS is necessary to not only prevent the spread of the virus but to also help support those, notRead MoreAids, Hiv, And Aids1726 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAIDS and HIV in Africa Picture this: a young child who is very skinny, ribs and all other bones are showing through the skin, they are born with HIV. it then leads to AIDS, due to their parents. HIV is a Human Immunodeficiency Virus. If HIV is left untreated, it can lead to AIDS, which is an acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. In Nigeria, Africa millions of people have the disease of AIDS and HIV. There is not many treatment options or solutions for this serious issue that takes place all over theRead MoreAcquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Africa922 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesImmunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in Africa is the most affected area that it has reverse expected population growth to a net decrease (Oxford Analytica Ltd). Africa is the number one countries with the highest rate of HIV and AIDS among the other fifteen countries (Patel). HIV and AIDS spread among adults, teens, and even to children who know nothing. Around 35 to 42 million people are living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and AIDS all over the world. However, about 25.5 million of the 35 to
Question: Discuss About The Diversity Inclusion International Journal? Answer: Introduction It is a very common fact that each and every organization faces several challenges in its path. These challenges are mainly associated with the profit, goals and corporate social responsibility of the organizations. There are several challenges that the modern organizations are facing in their path of attaining their goals and objectives. There are different problems like lack of proper revenue, lack of resources, unclear business goals and objectives (Tenenbaum, 2017). One of the most important issues that the business organizations have to deal with is business ethics. Earning large amounts of profits may be the immediate goals of many business organizations but the ultimate goal must be having proper business ethics and maintaining a good CSR. Business ethics usually speaks about all the values that an organization must possess. It goes much beyond than simply, money making. It involves maintaining and improving the quality of lives of the employees and their families along with t he uplifting of the community and the society as a whole (Bryman Bell, 2015). Challenges of profit that can be faced by organizations while expanding in a Global Context One of the most crucial challenges that can be faced by the organization is the code of laws and regulations that are followed. This is a common fact that the legal and ethical odes vary from one country to the other. These laws also play a major role when an organization is trying to expand globally or on an international basis. The legal and ethical rules that are followed in Australia greatly vary from the legal rules that are followed in New Zealand. So, if an organization expands on global context then they will have to face several differences in terms of the tax regulations, trading laws, employment and labor requirements and several other such issues. The tax policy greatly differs from one country to the other. So, it can happen that if the business organization tries to expand from one country to the other, then it will have to pay a greater amount of tax. There can also be some other ethical issues as well in terms of the employment and labor requirements. Hiring the child ren as workers may be a lawfully punishable act in one country whereas it can be an accepted norm in the other. It can happen that the country where an organization is trying to expand expects them to provide employment even to the children due to the large-scale poverty present in that country (Williams, 2017). International Accounting This is also one of the major issues that can be faced by an organization when it tries to expand in a global context. The Accounting system is perhaps one of the most crucial pillars of business. Accounting is the key to the maximization of the revenue. So, suddenly when a particular business organization tries to set up its new branches or a new business venture in some other country then it is likely for the business to face several issues in the accounting. It is for this reason that the organizations have to make a thorough survey of finding the most favorable places or countries for their expansion. For an instance, if any particular business organization tries to expand globally and selects Ireland as its place of new venture then it might turn out to be very favorable for them as the Irish Tax Policy is considered to be the business-friendly tax policies (Hellman, 2016.) Cost calculation and global pricing strategy There can also be a major problem when the business is trying to expand from one country to the other. The business is likely to face the problem of currency change. The currency that is usable and accepted in one country definitely differs in the other. So, if a business venture shifts in a new country then it will surely be a major problem for them to grasp the cost calculation and the pricing strategy that is followed in that country (Knoll, Schularick Steger, 2017). Challenges of goal that can be faced by organizations while expanding in a Global Context One of the major goals that an organization will have if it wants to expand globally is the elimination of poverty. However, it has to be noted that elimination of poverty is not merely a charitable task. It is about finding the ways to unlock the human potential. One such major aspect in this context is child labor. The social and political rules and laws vary greatly from one country to the other. So, if any business organization is trying to expand their venture internationally then their goal must be to generate a large amount of employment so that they can eradicate poverty. Child labor may be a punishable offense in Australia but it can be a very common scenario in places like Ghana, Nigeria, Africa and several other such places. So, in such cases, it will be a challenge for the company to set up its new venture. This is because the natives of that country will expect this new organization to hire the children and have a good source of income. It is this scenario that the busin ess organization will have to generate more employment opportunities for the adults and try to reduce the chances of poverty. Reduce the inequality in wages One of the major goals that every organization must have while expanding on a global basis is to ensure equal pay to both the make and the female employees. One of the most important responsibilities of any business organization is to maintain a good Corporate and social responsibility. However, CSR of an organization must not be merely based on promoting environmental sustainability. They must be ethically responsible towards the society as well. Their goal must be to promote equal opportunities for the employees. There must not be any gender bias existing within the organization. The organizations will have to make sure that there is equal pay for all the workers. Industry Innovation and Infrastructure Expanding on a global context will require proper upgraded infrastructure and innovation. If any organization is expanding from one country to another it needs to have all the required provisions for the proper up gradation and improvement. Proper access to the financial market is also of utmost importance for expansion of a business on a global basis. Peace justice and strong institution Another important business goal that must be maintained and followed by each and every business organization when they want to expand globally is, to maintain proper peace and justice. They must make sure that there are no disputes taking place due to the setting up of their new business setup. They must maintain all the proper rules and regulations while setting up their branch from one country to the other. For an instance, during land acquisition, the organization has to make sure that they are not going against any legal codes and conducts. If somehow they try to acquire any landholdings that are disputed or are under the ownership of the local people or the local government then there can be several disputes. So, it is of utmost importance that the organization tries its level best to maintain all the required legal codes and conducts so that there are no such chances of disputes (Deresky, 2017). Challenges of CSR that can be faced by organizations while expanding in a Global Context Inequality in the pay of the male and female workers One of the major social issues that are faced by the business organizations is employee dissatisfaction due to the unequal pay of the male and the female workers. While an organization is trying to expand itself from one country to the other, they have to pay due importance to the ethical issues also (Grund, 2015). As the law and order of one country vary from the other, unequal pay to the male and female workers can be acceptable in some countries whereas it will be unacceptable in others. However, the business organization will have to make sure that the male and the female workers are getting equal payments. This is also a part of their social and legal responsibilities to ensure equal rights and opportunities for all (Bromley Meyer, 2015). Helping the disabled people It is very common that a business organization will try to expand from one country to the other. However, it is needed that the company keeps sufficient provisions for the challenged and the disabled employees. When they are setting up a new branch in a new country, they will naturally hire a huge amount of workforce from that new country. It can happen that there are people who are physically challenged but are looking for employment. So, the organization must make provisions for those challenged people by keeping a separate fund for them. They can offer some special facilities like wheelchairs or some extra leaves and some flexible shift timings for them (de Jong Aarts, 2016). Conclusion Thus, it can be concluded that ethical dilemmas are indeed very common in any business organizations. These dilemmas can often affect the overall profits of the company. In the long term, it also harms the achievement of the long-term goals of the company. So, it is advised that the decision makers must take into consideration all the circumstances and the given set of considerations. Their decisions must be such so that they can adhere to the laws and take ethical decisions at the same time. References Broad, C. D. (2014).Five types of ethical theory(Vol. 2). Routle Bromley, P., Meyer, J. W. (2015).Hyper-organization: Global organizational expansion. Oxford University Press. Bryman, A., Bell, E. (2015).Business research methods. Oxford University Press, USA. Chonko, L. (2018).Ethical Theories. [ebook] Arlington: The University of Texas, pp.1-5. Available at: https://www.dsef.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/EthicalTheories.pdf [Accessed 16 Jan. 2018]. Crane, A., Matten, D. (2016).Business ethics: Managing corporate citizenship and sustainability in the age of globalization. Oxford University Press. de Jong, P. R., Aarts, J. M. (2016).Economic aspects of disability behavior(Vol. 207). Elsevier. Deresky, H. (2017).International management: Managing across borders and cultures. Pearson Education India. Grund, C. (2015). Gender pay gaps among highly educated professionalsCompensation components do matter.Labour Economics,34, 118-126. Hellman, N. (2016). Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation.Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation,27, 13-25. Hoffman, W. M., Frederick, R. E., Schwartz, M. S. (Eds.). (2014).Business ethics: Readings and cases in corporate morality. John Wiley Sons. Knoll, K., Schularick, M., Steger, T. (2017). No price like home: Global house prices, 1870-2012.American Economic Review,107(2), 331-53. Letwin, C., Wo, D., Folger, R., Rice, D., Taylor, R., Richard, B., Taylor, S. (2016). The right and the good in ethical leadership: Implications for supervisors performance and promotability evaluations.Journal of Business Ethics,137(4), 743-755. Shaw, W. H., Barry, V. (2015).Moral issues in business. Cengage Learning. Tenenbaum, S. (2017). Action, Deontology, and Risk: Against the Multiplicative Model.Ethics,127(3), 674-707. Trevino, L. K., Nelson, K. A. (2016).Managing business ethics: Straight talk about how to do it right. John Wiley Sons. Weiss, J. W. (2014).Business ethics: A stakeholder and issues management approach. Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Williams, B. R. (2017). Disability in the Australian workplace: corporate governance or CSR issue?.Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal,36(3), 206-221.
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Sino-Russian Forum Chapter1. Historical Retrospection of Sino-USSR Trade Sino-R.S.S.R trade started even before the establishment of the People's Republic of China. In August 1946, the Chinese Communist Party Northeast Bureau reached an agreement with the Soviet Union to exchange clothes, medicine and other daily necessities with foodstuff. At the end of the year, a small-scale trade began. The trade relation between China and USSR had experienced great changes since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. From the moment in 1949 to the disintegration of the USSR in 1991, there are several stages in the development of the Sino-USSR trade relation: the ?golden times? in the 50s, the decline in the 60s, the stagnation in the 60s and the rapid growth in the 80s. ?1. The ?golden times? in the 1950s The1950s is the period that Sino-USSR trade grew quickly. In the second day after the People's Republic of China announced her establishment (October 2,1949) , the Soviet government officially admitted the Chinese government and established an ambassadorial diplomatic relations with china. In April 19,1950, the two governments signed the first trade agreement ?The Trade Agreement Between The People's Republic Of China Government and The Union Of Soviet Socialist Republics Government. It was the first trade agreement that China signed with a foreign country. It established a solid foundation for the development of the trade between the two countries. In 1957 and 1958, another two agreement was signed. They included items about transportation and most-favored-treatment clause in economics. They had great meanings in promoting the economic and trade relations between China and USSR The large-scale economic cooperation between China and USSR brought the quick growth of the trade amount between the two countries. In 1950, the total Sino-R.S.S.R trade amount was 3338.4 million dollars and ranked first in the foreign trade partners of the China. In 1955, the total trade amount was 1789.9 million dollars, which was two-third of the amount of the Chinese foreign trade. It was the year that Sino-USSR trade amount took the biggest proportion in the total Chinese foreign trade amount. In 1959, the trade amount reached 2097 million dollars which was the 5.2 times of that in 1950. USSR was the biggest trade partner of China. Her proportion in the foreign trade of China kept at 40%-50percentage except in 1950. Table of sino-USSR trade amount in the 1950s (unit: ten thousand dollars) Year Total trade amount Exports Imports Proportion to Chinese foreign trade (%) 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 33 844 80 860 106 142 125 823 129 124 178 985 152 377 136 470 153 857 209 700 166 394 15 325 31 129 41 204 48 061 58 663 67 021 76 168 74 697 89 887 111 794 81 878 18 519 49 731 65 217 77 762 70 461 111 64 76 209 61 773 63 970 97 906 84 516 29.8 41.4 54.8 53.1 53.1 56.9 47.5 44.0 39.8 47.9 43.7 Original sources: Chinese Foreign Economics and Trade Annual What China mainly exported to USSR were agricultural products and by-products like rice, soy bean, tea, meat and vegetable oil; light industrial products; mineral resources and rare metals. What China imported were mainly equipment and military orders. From 1953 to 1957, the proportion of machines imported from USSR to the total Sino-USSR imports was 34%, 33% were machines in sets. To 1959, the proportions respectively rose to 62.2%and 41.9%. China also imported petrologic products like petrol, lubricant and kerosene; raw materials like steal and cotton. ?2. The Decline in the 60s The Chinese Communist Party and the Soviet Communist Party had diverged in ideology since 1956. Their divergence became bigger and bigger which deteriorated the relation between the two countries, produced direct and serious effects on the development of economic, and trade relations between the two countries. Bilateral trade sharply decreased and economic cooperation entirely stopped. In 1960, USSR tore up 12 agreements, recalled all the experts in China, stopped 257 technological cooperation items, and refused to supply mineral resources like cobalt and nickel that China needed urgently and greatly decreased the export of machines and important accessories. All these brought great destruction to the economy of China. The trade amount sharply decreased to 827.9 million dollars in 1961,which was just half of the amount in 1960 and one third of the amount in 1959. In 1970, sino-USSR trade amount dropped to the lowest point in the history?only 4.723 million dollars which was 2.25% of the amount of 1959. This number was only 1% of the total Chinese foreign trade and
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
How to Get Great Content with Solid Editorial Guidelines If youre not getting the content you want for your blog, or you are spending too much time during the editorial process trying to turn mediocre content into something better, then youre in need of editorial guidelines. Editorial guidelines can be the what you need to unite all of your writers and to fill your blog with content that drives traffic to your business. Who Needs Editorial Guidelines Whether you are the sole author of your blog, or you have a wide range of one-time and regular contributors, editorial guidelines can help you stay on track. Heres how they help all of the writers for your blog. For You Blogging can be a challenge for anyone, no matter how passionate you are about your niche or industry. Even if you are the only author for your blog, creating editorial guidelines can help you keep the overall picture in focus. On days you are having trouble writing a new piece of content, your editorial guidelines can remind you of your blogging goals, who you are writing for, and what to write about. They can also help you maintain consistency over time with your content. Fact: Editorial guidelines can help you keep the overall picture in focus. #contentmarketingFor Guest Bloggers Inviting guest bloggers to contribute content to your blog opens the door to both amazing writers and those that are still trying to game search engines using the guest blogging for links strategy. Having a strong set of editorial guidelines will generally help you weed out the latter (well show you the specific requirement to help with this later) and reduce the overall amount of time you spend editing guest content you receive. For In-House Writers Training new employees can take time. Fortunately, with editorial guidelines, you wont have to train each new employee you want to contribute to the company blog on how to create a great piece of content. They can just follow the guidelines. For Freelancers While freelance writer are professionals who know how to create content, they typically work with several clients at a time. Having editorial guidelines to share with them will ensure that they are writing the type of content you want for your blog as opposed to writing in the ways they are used to for themselves or their other clients. Why Your Editorial Guidelines Need to Be Specific If you want to get the content you need for your blog with minimal back and forth with authors and editing, then a specific set of editorial guidelines is the key. You can start with less descriptive guidelines to begin with, and slowly add new requirements to the list as you run into issues with the blog content you receive. But if you want to start off on the right foot, then get detailed and save yourself some editorial headaches. Key Elements to Cover in Your Editorial Guidelines The following are the key elements to cover in your editorial guidelines. Be sure to think each one through and formulate your guidelines to match your desired blog content. If you are just starting out in the blogging world and are not sure what works in your niche or industry, the best way to find out is to do a little competitive research. Look at other blogs in your space to see what type of content they publish. Look at the engagement for those pieces of content. This can help guide you in determining how to define the following elements for your editorial guidelines. Goals Let writers know what your goals are for your blog. Do you want more traffic? Do you want content that will help you rank for specific keywords? Do you want lots of social shares? Do you want a little controversy to spark discussion? Do you want content that generates leads? Figure out the specific things you would like to achieve with your blog and get your writers in the right frame of mind to create content that works towards those goals. Audience Define your ideal blog audience. Will content be directed towards busy people who are looking for bite-sized content, or technical people who want step by step details? Will content be aimed at attracting small business owners or Fortune 500 CEOs? Will content need to appeal to users or decision makers? Create reader personas for your blog so that writers can visualize whom they are speaking to with their content. Topics Are you looking for writers that are passionate about specific topics? If so, list those topics in your guidelines. That way, you get pitches that match the topics you want to cover. Content Uniqueness Require that all content submissions be unique. Writers should know that the content they submit to your website should not have been published elsewhere in the past and should not be republished elsewhere in the future without specific consent from you. This is something you will need to check with each content submission you plan to publish on your website. Its as simple as putting one sentence from the content in Google to see if any matches come up, or using tools such as Grammarly. Length Blog post length is a tricky subject. In the past, content created for SEO purposes had to be a minimum of 300 words. Now, the average blog posts is a minimum of 400 600 words, and can range upwards of 1,200 5,000 words. While there is no magic formula to determine what word count works best, you should specify a minimum word count to aim for with each piece of content. This doesnt have to be a one-size fits all number either. You can specify that breaking news articles must be a minimum of 500 words, inspiration pieces must be a minimum of 700 words, and tutorials must be a minimum of 1,000 words. This way, you can have some variety to fit different types of content consumers. Tone Most blogs opt for a more conversational tone. This will depend on your audience, and if you have a business, the type of products and services you offer. Some industries can get away with conversational, and maybe even humorous content, while others should aim for something more formal. Media Images are important to content, so at minimum, you will want to require that each piece of content have at least one image. With that said, images can come from a variety of sources such as stock photography, Creative Commons, screenshots, Canva, and so forth. Let your writers know what type of images you want and where you want them to get those images. Links Links can be a tricky subject in blog content, especially if you are relying on outside contributors. You should always insist that writers try to link to related content from your blog within their posts. You should also insist that they link to any resources they recommend or sources for statistics they mention. What you should discourage, on the other hand, are links to your direct competitors and self-promotional links where the main goal is to promote something that the writer has a vested interest in, such as their own website, business, products, and services. If you allow the latter, writers will not be focusing on creating content for your audience, but content to promote themselves. You should also discourage affiliate links. In all cases, you should check the links writers include in blog posts to ensure that they are links that you wouldnt mind your readers (and potential customers) clicking through to. Author Bylines The one place writers should be allowed to do a little self-promotion is in the author byline. This can be a sentence or two, up to a paragraph about the author at the end of a post and on an author archive page. You should still review the links writers include in their author bio, again to ensure they are links that you wouldnt mind your readers clicking through to. Examples of Top Posts Help your writers by pointing them to specific pieces of content you consider the top posts on your blog. This should be a post that meets your blog contents goals and that meets all of your editorial guidelines. How to Deliver Content The easiest way to reduce the amount of time editing blog content is asking writers to enter it directly into your content management system, such as WordPress. If you prefer to restrict access to your CMS, you can require that writers deliver content in the format that works best for you Microsoft Word, Google Docs, or plain text. The goal for this is to make submission consistent and easy to work with on your end. Community Participation Require that your writers reply to blog comments for at least the first week or two after their posts are published. You cant un-publish a piece of content just because a writer has decided not to engage with your community, but you can require that community participation is required, otherwise the author loses the links in their byline. This is a great way to weed out link-building guest bloggers, as their goal is to just get a link and run, as well as ensure that the engagement on your blog continues to thrive. Require that your writers reply to blog comments for Ã the first week or two. #contentmarketingHow to Apply to Contribute You will want to include specific directions on how people should apply to contribute content. Do you want them to submit a blog post topic idea or a full blog post? Do you want them to send links to published works on other blogs (preferably ones similar to yours)? Do you want them to specify their Twitter or Google+ profile? Do you want to link to their LinkedIn profile to further establish that they are a real person again, to weed out link-building guest bloggers)? You can allow people to submit their information via email, or create a custom form on your blog that will allow them to input this information, and upload blog posts if necessary. Internal Guidelines Last, but not least, you may want to have an internal editorial guidelines document that you send to writers once they are employed at your company, once they have been hired are freelancers, and depending on the level of sensitivity, once they have signed a non-disclosure agreement. This document would outline things you may not want to publish publicly, such as specific competitors to avoid mentioning in blog posts, how to create an account on your blog to enter posts, and a full tutorial on how to enter posts into your CMS. How to Publish Your Editorial Guidelines to Attract Writers Once your editorial guidelines are complete and you are ready to welcome new contributors to your blog, you should publish your editorial guidelines. You should then link this on your blog in the main menu, sidebar, or footer links as well as at the end of blog posts so that readers know you are open to new contributors. In addition, you should optimize your editorial guidelines for search by including phrases such as how to become a contributor, write for us, editorial guidelines, and similar phrases in the SEO title of the page. This will help more people discover the opportunity to write for your blog. How to Enforce Your Editorial Guidelines The best part about comprehensive editorial guidelines is that you can use them to quickly call for edits or reject content submissions as a whole. Instead of having to explain yourself each time you respond to a blog post submission, you can quickly point writers to your editorial guidelines to have them make edits that require additional content or change of tone. You can also quickly point writers to the guidelines to say that the topic or blog post they have submitted does not fit your blogs needs based on topic or quality.
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Thorny Devil Lizard Facts Thorny devil lizards are part of class Reptilia and mainly live throughout the arid parts of Australia. Their scientific name, Moloch horridus, is derived from the Latin word meaning rough/bristly (horridus). These lizards get their name from the conical spikes across their whole body, and they can camouflage themselves in their environments. Fast Facts: Thorny Devil Lizards Scientific Name: Moloch horridusCommon Names: Thorny Devil, Mountain DevilOrder: SquamataBasic Animal Group: ReptileDistinguishing Characteristics: Conical spikes on its head, body, and tail with a skin color of yellow and brownish-black.Size: Up to 8 inchesWeight: 0.1 - 0.2 pounds on averageLife Span: Up to 20 yearsDiet: AntsHabitat: Dry desert, grasslands, scrublandConservation Status: Least ConcernFun Fact: Per meal, a thorny devil can eat anywhere from 600 to 2,500 ants with their sticky tongues. Description Thorny devils have cones and shields on their bodies that serve as camouflage and as retainers of any water they come in contact with. The colors of their skin range from brown to yellow as the time of day changes to effectively blend in with their arid environments. They have long tongues that allow them to catch ants, and their teeth are specially adapted to bite through the hard, chitin-rich bodies of ants. Females are generally larger than males, and they live 6 to 20 years in the wild. Head of a Thorny Devil Lizard. Theo Allofs / Getty Images These reptiles do not travel very far from their homes. They are not territorial and have been spotted in overlapping ranges of other thorny devils. They are also active from March through May and August through December. During the hottest (January and February) and coldest parts (June and July) of the year, thorny devils hide in burrows that they dig. Habitat and Distribution Thorny devils live in most of the arid regions of Australia, including the Southern and Western parts of the country. They prefer desert areas and spinifex grasslands. Spinifex is a type of spiky grass that grows in sand dunes. Diet and Behavior Their diet is made up exclusively of ants, eating anywhere from 600 to 2,500 ants in one meal. They locate these ants by moving very slowly to find trails and then waiting for the ants to come. They use their sticky tongues, similar to an anteaters, to pick them up. Additionally, thorny devilsÃ¢â¬â¢ skin collects water from its environment and channels the liquid to its mouth to drink. In extreme circumstances, they bury themselves in the sand to get moisture from it. Thorny Devil traveling on the sand. Luis Castaneda Inc. / Getty Images Thorny devils are non-territorial and donÃ¢â¬â¢t travel very far from their homes. Their daily routine consists of leaving their cover in the morning to warm themselves in the sand, moving to their defecation site, and then returning to their cover along the same path while eating ants along the way. However, they will travel further distances between August and September when in search of mates. To defend against predators, such as buzzards and Australian bustards (large land birds), thorny devils curl themselves to protect their head and expose a bony mass on their neck often referred to as a false head. This fools predators into attacking the knob instead of its real head. Reproduction and Offspring Mating season for thorny devils occurs from August to December. They travel long distances to converge at mating sites. Males attempt to attract females by bobbing their heads and waving their legs. Females fall and roll to throw off any males that meet their disapproval. Females lay 3 to 10 eggs in burrows much deeper than their normal ones and fill in the holes to cover up any signs of the burrow. The eggs incubate anywhere from 90 to 132 days and then the young emerge. Males and females grow at similar rates for the first year, but females grow at faster rates up until age five. Conservation Status Thorny devils are designated as least concern as assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The organization found thorny devils to be very widespread and unlikely to be under any threat. Sources Dewey, Tanya. Moloch Horridus. Animal Diversity Web, 2019, https:// animaldiversity.org/accounts/Moloch_horridus/.Moloch Horridus Adaptations. Dancing With The Devil, 2008, http:// bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2014/palmer_tayl/adaptation.htm.Thorny Devils. Bush Heritage Australia, 2019, https://www.bushheritage.org.au/species/thorny-devils.Ã¯ » ¿Thorny Devil. The IUCN Red List Of Threatened Species, 2019, https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/83492011/83492039.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
The growth of China 2008 to 2013 impact on the U.S. economy - Research Paper Example With the main aim of ensuring recovery after the recession of 2008, the country has managed to record tremendous growth, particularly in the gross domestic product (GDP), which is used by its leaders in the benchmarking of the economyÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. In this study, I seek to address the concept of economic growth in China from a macroeconomic point of view, and how the same impacts on the US economy from a macroeconomic point of view (Chuang & Thomas, 2010; Morrison, 2013). The economy of China has been considered as one of the fastest growing economies in the world taking into consideration its real annual gross domestic product (GDP) that has averagely grown to 10% in the year 2013. As such, China is regarded as a main global power in trade. The other economic achievements in China that make its economy to be growing faster is that fact that it is the largest manufacturer, the largest trading economy, the second-largest foreign direct investment (FDI) destination and the only country holding the largest number of foreign exchange reserves (Calhoun & Derluguian, 2011). Within a span of only three decades beginning the year 1979, the rapidness in the economic rise of China can be considered as one of the major and the greatest success stories economically. However, this rating cannot be merited to that of the U.S.A considering that it has a lower per capita value as compared to the US (Gordon, 2008). However, in the year 2008, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth was adversely affected by the recession considering that significant declines were noted in its exports, FDI inflows and imports. Consequently, there was a slowed growth in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP and a large number of the working population lost their jobs through forced retrenchments and early retirements. From the angle of macroeconomics, it can be said that the recession affected households, businesses and the public